The territory lying between the 1948 Cease Fire Line (Green Line) and the Jordan River has a population of about three million in 2015, including 600,000 Israeli settlers. Palestinians call this territory the “West Bank,” in reference to the land’s position west of the Jordan River. Many Israelis call it “Judea and Samaria,” after the biblical names for these areas 3000 years ago. East Jerusalem and the West Bank are home to many historic sites associated with the Hebrew Patriarchs and ancient kingdoms of Israel and Judah. The Palestinians, who claim descent from the non-Jewish population present in Judea since Roman times and the later Arab immigrants, have called the area home for at least 2000 years.