The Peace Process in Documents
The McMahon Letter (October 24, 1915)
Correspondence between Sir Henry McMahon, British High Commission of Egypt, and Sherif Hussein ibn Ali of Mecca in which the British agree to recognize the Sherif’s claims to an Arab state consisting of Mesopotamia, the Arabian Peninsula, and Syria east of Damascus-Homs-Aleppo line.
The Sykes-Picot Agreement (May 15-16, 1916)
Secret agreement among British, French, and Russians to partition the Ottoman Empire after World War I. Designates some areas under direct European control while creating larger spheres of influence in the region. Palestine is designated as an area under joint British-French-Russian administration.
The Balfour Declaration (November 2, 1917)
A statement by British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balflour recommending “the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people.”
Emir Feisal and Chaim Weizmann Agreement (January 3, 1919)
An agreement between Emir Feisal ibn Hussein of Mecca and Chaim Weizman, President of the World Zionist Organization to encourage Jewish immigration to Palestine as well as to provide safeguards for the rights of the indigenous community. This agreement was conditioned upon Britain and France upholding their promise to establish an independent Arab state in Syria.
League of Nations British Mandate (July 24, 1922)
International agreement by the League of Nations, establishing Great Britain as the mandatory power to administer Palestine. As a mandatory power, Britain commits to “securing the establishment of the Jewish national home.”
British White Paper of June 1939
“In the light of the discussions as well as of the situation in Palestine and of the Reports of the Royal Commission and the Partition Commission, certain proposals were formulated by His Majesty’s Government and were laid before the Arab and Jewish Delegations as the basis of an agreed settlement. Neither the Arab nor the Jewish delegation felt able to accept these proposals, and the conferences therefore did not result in an agreement. Accordingly His Majesty’s Government are free to formulate their own policy, and after careful consideration they have decided to adhere generally to the proposals which were finally submitted to and discussed with the Arab and Jewish delegations.”
UN General Assembly: Resolution 181 (November 29, 1947)
International agreement by the United Nations to terminate the British Mandate of Palestine and establishes a plan for partitioning Palestine between a Jewish and an Arab state. Jerusalem is set aside as an international city.
UN General Assembly Resolution 194 (December 11, 1948)
International agreement creating a Conciliatory Commission consisting of France, Turkey, and the United States for the purposes of coordination with local authorities in preparation of partition.
UN Security Council Resolution 242 (November 22, 1967)
International agreement calling on Israel to withdraw from all territories occupied during the Six Day War.
Camp David Summit Meeting: Framework for Peace (September 17, 1978)
Agreement reached between Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin setting out parameters for an Israeli withdraw from the occupied Palestinian territories as part of a general Egyptian-Israeli peace agreement.
Egypt and Israel Peace Treaty (March 26, 1979)
A treaty reached between Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin stipulating a staged withdraw of Israeli forces from the Sinai Peninsula and complete normalization of relations between Egypt and Israel.
Oslo Agreement: Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements (September 13, 1993)
An agreement establishing formal mutual recognition between the government of Israel and the P.L.O. Israel commits to a five-year transitional period for withdrawing from Gaza and Jericho.
Israel and Jordan: Peace Treaty (October 26, 1994)
A Treaty reached between Jordanian Prime Minister Abdul Salam Majali and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin establishing the international border between Israel and Jordan as well as providing for complete normalization of relations between the two countries.
Oslo II Agreement: Interim Agreement on the West Bank and Gaza Strip (September 28, 1995)
Agreement reached at Oslo between the government of Israel and the P.L.O to establish an elected Palestinian Interim Self-Government Authority (PA) and to begin the process of transferring governing authority in the West Bank to the PA. The PA obtains complete sovereignty over Zone A and Israel maintains complete sovereignty over Zone C. Zone B is administered by the PA while Israeli defense forces provide security.
Arab League Summit: Beirut Declaration (March 28, 2002)
A resolution affirmed by the Arab League to normalize relations with Israel on the basis of the “land for peace” formula. In exchange for a withdrawal from all territories occupied since 1967, the Arab League would agree to “consider the Arab-Israeli conflict ended.”