The Catholic Church
Catholic Christians recognize the Pope in Rome as the universal head of the Church. However, there is a lot of diversity in the worship practices within the Catholic Church. Not all Catholics use the same liturgy for mass. In the Middle East, Melkite, Maronite, Armenian, Chaldaean, and Coptic Catholics each use liturgies developed locally in the indigenous languages of the Middle East (Syriac, Greek, Armenian, and Coptic). Roman Catholics (the most common variety of Catholicism in Europe and the Americas) are known in the Middle East as Latin Rite Catholics, and come under the jurisdiction of the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem. Catholic Christians have lived in the Middle East since the Crusades (1095-1291).